Friedrich von Schiller
tysk diktare 1759 – 1805
Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1802 adlad von Schiller), född 10 november 1759 i Marbach am Neckar i Württemberg, död 9 maj 1805 i Weimar i Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, var en tysk författare, dramatiker och filosof av weimarklassicismen.
Tysk diktare vars dramer har bildat underlag för åtskilliga operor,bl.a. Rossinis Wilhelm Tell (1829),Verdis Giovanna d´Arco (1845), I masnadieri (1847),Luisa Miller (1849) och Don Carlos (1867), Tjajkovskijs Jungfrun av Orléans (1881).
Schiller is considered by most Germans to be Germany’s most important classical playwright. Critics like F.J. Lamport and Eric Auerbach have noted his innovative use of dramatic structure and his creation of new forms, such as the melodrama and the bourgeois tragedy. What follows is a brief, chronological description of the plays.
- The Robbers (Die Räuber): The language of The Robbers is highly emotional, and the depiction of physical violence in the play marks it as a quintessential work of Germany’s Romantic Sturm und Drang movement. The Robbers is considered by critics like Peter Brooks to be the first European melodrama. The play pits two brothers against each other in alternating scenes, as one quests for money and power, while the other attempts to create revolutionary anarchy in the Bohemian Forest. The play strongly criticises the hypocrisies of class and religion, and the economic inequities of German society; it also conducts a complicated inquiry into the nature of evil. Schiller was inspired by the play Julius of Tarent by Johann Anton Leisewitz.
- Fiesco (Die Verschwörung des Fiesco zu Genua):
- Intrigue and Love (Kabale und Liebe): The aristocratic Ferdinand von Walter wishes to marry Luise Miller, the bourgeois daughter of the city’s music instructor. Court politics involving the duke’s beautiful but conniving mistress Lady Milford and Ferdinand’s ruthless father create a disastrous situation reminiscent of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Schiller develops his criticisms of absolutism and bourgeois hypocrisy in this bourgeois tragedy. Act 2, scene 2 is an anti-British parody that depicts a firing-squad massacre. Young Germans who refused to join the Hessians and British to quash the American Revolutionary War are fired upon.
- Don Carlos: This play marks Schiller’s entrée into historical drama. Very loosely based on the events surrounding the real Don Carlos of Spain, Schiller’s Don Carlos is another republican figure—he attempts to free Flanders from the despotic grip of his father, King Phillip. The Marquis Posa’s famous speech to the king proclaims Schiller’s belief in personal freedom and democracy.
- The Wallenstein Trilogy: Consisting of Wallenstein’s Camp, The Piccolomini, and Wallenstein’s Death, these plays follow the fortunes of the treacherous commander Albrecht von Wallenstein during the Thirty Years’ War.
- Mary Stuart (Maria Stuart): This history of the Scottish queen, who was Elizabeth I’s rival, portrays Mary Stuart as a tragic heroine, misunderstood and used by ruthless politicians, including and especially, Elizabeth.
- The Maid of Orleans (Die Jungfrau von Orleans): about Joan of Arc
- The Bride of Messina (Die Braut von Messina)
- William Tell (Wilhelm Tell)
- Demetrius (unfinished)