Mirella Freni impressive soprano 1935 – 2020

Mirella Freni impressive soprano 1935 - 2020

Mirella Freni,born Mirella Fregni, 27 February 1935 – 9 February 2020)  was an Italian operatic soprano who had a career of 50 years and appeared at major international opera houses. She received international attention at the Glyndebourne Festival, where she appeared as Zerlina in Mozart’s Don Giovanni and as Adina in Donizetti’s L’elisir d’amore.

Mirella Freni impressive soprano 1935 – 2020

Mirella Freni is associated with the role of Mimi in Puccini’s  La bohème ,  which she sang at La Scala  in Milan and the  Vienna State Opera  in 1963, conducted by Herbert von Karajan.She also performed the role in a film of the production and as her debut at the Metropolitan Opera  in New York City in 1965. In the earliest opera DVDs, she portrayed her characters convincingly in both acting and singing. Freni was married for many years to the Bulgarian  bass   Nicolai Ghiaurov, with whom she performed and recorded. Her obituary from  The New York Times  describes her as a ”matchless Italian prima donna”.

Life

Born in, she had the same  wet-nurse as Luciano Pavarotti, with whom she grew up and who was to become a frequent tenor partner on stage. She studied voice first with her uncle, Dante Arcelli,  then with Luigi Bertazzoni and  Ettore Campogalliani. She later changed her name thinking it was easier to pronounce. Freni made her operatic debut at the  Teatro Municipale  in her hometown on 3 March 1955 as Micaëla in Bizet’s  Carmen . She later married her teacher, the pianist and director Leone Magiera the couple had a daughter. Freni resumed her career in 1958 when she performed Mimì in Puccini’s La bohème at the  Teatro Regio in Turin and sang in  De Nederlandse Opera ’s 1959–60 season. Her international breakthrough came at the  Glyndebourne Festival, where she appeared in 1960 as Zerlina in Mozart’s  Don Giovanni , alongside  Joan Sutherland  as Donna Anna, and in 1962 as Susanna in  The Marriage of Figaro , and as Adina in Donizetti’s  L’elisir d’amore , directed by  Franco Zeffirelli

In 1961,Mirella Freni first performed at the  Royal Opera House  in London as Nannetta in Verdi’s  Falstaff .  She stepped in as Nanetta at La Scala  in Milan for  Renata Scotto .  On 31 January 1963, she appeared there as Mimi in a production staged by  Franco Zeffirelli  and conducted by  Herbert von Karajan  She became one of the conductor ’s favourite singers in operas and concerts.  The production was repeated at the  Vienna State Opera  the same year, and she appeared at the house in eleven roles, including the title role of Puccini’s  Manon Lescaut , and Amelia in Verdi’s  Simon Boccanegra .

On 29 September 1965, Mirella Freni first appeared at the  Metropolitan Opera  in New York City, again as Mimi, with  Gianni Raimondi  as Rodolfo who also made his house debut. Reviewer Alan Rich wrote in the  New York Herald Tribune :

Miss Freni is—well, ”irresistible” will do for a start. Beautiful to look at, and actress of simple naturalness and overwhelming intelligence, she used voice and gesture to create a Mimi of ravishing femininity and grace. The voice itself is pure and fresh, operating without seam from bottom to top, marvelously colored at every point by what seems to be an instinctive response to the urging of the text.

She later appeared there as Adina in Donizetti’s L’elisir d’amore ,  Liù in Puccini’s  Turandot , Marguerite in Gounod’s  Faust , Juliette in  Roméo et Juliette ,  as Susanna, Micaela and Manon Lescaut.  The following year she sang Mimì again for her  Philadelphia Lyric Opera Company  debut, with  Flaviano Labò  as Rodolfo. From the early 1970s into the 1980s, Freni sang heavier Verdi roles, including Elisabetta in  John Dexter ’s production of  Don Carlos , Desdemona in  Otello  (alongside  Jon Vickers ), Amelia in  Simon Boccanegra , Elvira in the  Luca Ronconi  staging of  Ernani , Leonora in  La forza del destino , and the title role of  Aida  performed in the  Houston Grand Opera  in 1987. She appeared as Puccini’s  Tosca only on a recording. She performed as Manon Lescaut in the Metropolitan Opera’s 1990 season,  and recorded  Madama Butterfly  and the three roles of  Il trittico .

Mirella Freni chose her roles carefully, saying in an interview: ”I am generous in many ways, but not when I think it will destroy my voice. Some singers think they are gods who can do everything. But I have always been honest with myself and my possibilities.”  She refused Karajan’s offers of Leonora in Verdi’s  Il trovatore  and the title role in Puccini’s  Turandot .  Elvira in Ernani was set aside after a single run at La Scala (and despite offers to sing the role elsewhere).  She never sang Cio-Cio-San on stage, but recorded it twice, not including the 1975 film Madama Butterfly, alongside  Plácido Domingo, with Karajan conducting and  Jean-Pierre Ponnelle  directing.  She played Susanna in the Ponnelle film  Le nozze di Figaro , which also featured  Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau,  Kiri Te Kanawa  and  Hermann Prey

In 1978, after her marriage to Magiera had ended in divorce, she married  Nicolai Ghiaurov, one of the leading operatic  basses  of the post-war period. Together they helped to establish the Centro Universale del Bel Canto in  Vignola, where they began giving master classes in 2002. After Ghiaurov’s death in 2004, Mirella Freni continued their work of preserving the  bel canto tradition, teaching young singers from around the world.

Mirella Freni extended her repertoire and style during the 1990s with Italian  Verismo  taking on the title roles of Francesco Cilea’s  Adriana Lecouvreur  in Milan, Paris, Barcelona and New York, and Umberto Giordano’s  Fedora  in London, Milan, New York, Torino, Barcelona and Zürich. In 1997, Mirella Freni performed Giordano’s  Madame Sans-Gêne  at the  Teatro Massimo Bellini During this time she sang in Russian operas, such as Tchaikovsky’s Tatiana in  Eugene Onegin , Lisa in  The Queen of Spades , and Ioanna in  The Maid of Orleans . Freni ended her professional career on stage, performing teenager Ioanna at the age of 70 at the  Washington National Opera  on 11 April 2005.
Mirella Freni died on 9 February 2020 at her home in Modena. According to her manager, she died ”after a long degenerative illness and a series of strokes”.  On 12 February, her coffin was moved from the funeral home to the  Teatro Comunale Modena  for public tribute and then transferred in a procession to  Modena Cathedral, where the funeral took place.

Honours

Mirella Freni was awarded the  Order of Merit of the Italian Republic  in the grade of Knight Grand Cross in 1990,  and the French Legion of Honour  in March 1993.In 1995, she was appointed Commander of the  Ordre des Arts et des Lettres  The  University of Pisa  awarded her an honorary degree in 2002 for her ”great contribution to European culture.”  In 2009, she was promoted to the rank of Officer in the Legion of Honour.

In 2005, the Metropolitan Opera  celebrated the 40th anniversary of her Met debut and her 50th anniversary on stage with a special gala concert conducted by  James Levine.

Videography

På svenska

Mirella Freni fick sin utbildning i födelsestaden Modena där hon också debuterade 1955 som Micaëla i Carmen. I början av 1960-talet väckte hon uppseende vid festspelen i Glyndebourne som Zerlina i Don Giovanni, Susanna i Figaros bröllop och Adina i Kärleksdrycken. Det ledde till engagemang på Covent Garden 1961, och 1962 sjöng hon på Pccola Scala.

Sedan 1963 har Mirella Freni varit en av La Scalas obestridda primadonnor efter sin sensationella framgång som Mimí i Bohéme under Karajans ledning. I denna roll debuterade hon också på Metropolitan 1965, men 1970 började hon också sjunga tyngre partier som Elizabeth i Don Carlos, som hon bl.a. har sjungit i Salzburg, Desdemona i Otello och Amelia i Simon Boccanegra.

Glyndebourne Operafestival

Mirella Freni in Glyndebourne

Metropolitan Opera

[Met Performance] CID:204020  
La Bohème {636}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/29/1965
Debuts: Mirella Freni, Gianni Raimondi
Review
[Met Performance] CID:204100
La Bohème {638}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/8/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204130
La Bohème {639}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/11/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204390
La Bohème {642}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/6/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204440
L’Elisir d’Amore {97}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/12/1965
Review
[Met Performance] CID:204490
L’Elisir d’Amore {98}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/17/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204590
L’Elisir d’Amore {99}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/27/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204620
L’Elisir d’Amore {100}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/30/1965
[Met Performance] CID:204740
L’Elisir d’Amore {101}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/11/1965
[Met Performance] CID:208120
Turandot {75}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/7/1966
[Met Performance] CID:208210
Turandot {76}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/15/1966
Review
[Met Performance] CID:208250
Faust {604}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/20/1966
Debut: Tania Karina
Review
[Met Performance] CID:208310
Faust {605}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/26/1966
[Met Performance] CID:208340
Faust {606}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/29/1966
Review
[Met Performance] CID:208400
Faust {607}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/4/1966
Review
[Met Performance] CID:208440
Faust {608}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/8/1966
[Met Performance] CID:208450
Turandot {77}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/9/1966
Review
[Met Performance] CID:208510
Faust {609}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/15/1966
[Met Performance] CID:208630
Turandot {78}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/26/1966
[Met Performance] CID:208700
Turandot {79}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/3/1966
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:208730
Turandot {80}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/6/1966
[Met Performance] CID:212010   
New production
Roméo et Juliette {192}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/19/1967
Debut: Paul-Emile Deiber, Jean Rosenthal
Reviews
[Met Performance] CID:212040
Roméo et Juliette {193}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/22/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212090
Roméo et Juliette {194}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/27/1967
Review
[Met Performance] CID:212140
Roméo et Juliette {195}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/2/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212230
Le Nozze di Figaro {211}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/11/1967
Debut: Tom Krause, Teresa Berganza, Nikolaus Lehnhoff
[Met Performance] CID:212270
Le Nozze di Figaro {212}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/14/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212350
Le Nozze di Figaro {214}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/23/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212380
Roméo et Juliette {199}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/26/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212420
Le Nozze di Figaro {215}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/30/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212460
Le Nozze di Figaro {216}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/3/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212740
Le Nozze di Figaro {220}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/1/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212790
Le Nozze di Figaro {221}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/6/1967
[Met Performance] CID:212820  Opera News
Le Nozze di Figaro {222}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/9/1967
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:214090
Roméo et Juliette {203}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/6/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214160  Opera News
Roméo et Juliette {204}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/13/1968
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:214190
Roméo et Juliette {205}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/16/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214230 Opera News
Carmen {627}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/20/1968
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:214310
Roméo et Juliette {206}
War Memorial Auditorium, Boston, Massachusetts; 04/27/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214360
Roméo et Juliette {207}
Cleveland Public Auditorium, Cleveland, Ohio; 05/3/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214450
Roméo et Juliette {208}
Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia; 05/11/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214480
Roméo et Juliette {209}
Northrup Memorial Auditorium, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 05/15/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214540
Le Nozze di Figaro {227}
Masonic Temple Auditorium, Detroit, Michigan; 05/21/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214590
Roméo et Juliette {210}
Masonic Temple Auditorium, Detroit, Michigan; 05/25/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214620
Roméo et Juliette {211}
Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 05/29/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214640
Le Nozze di Figaro {228}
Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 05/31/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214690
Roméo et Juliette {212}
Memphis, Tennessee; 06/5/1968
[Met Performance] CID:214720
Roméo et Juliette {213}
State Fair Music Hall, Dallas, Texas; 06/8/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216060
Carmen {641}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/21/1968
Debut: Shirley Verrett
Review
[Met Performance] CID:216090
Carmen {642}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/25/1968
Review
[Met Performance] CID:216140
Carmen {643}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/30/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216200
La Bohème {677}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/5/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216240
Carmen {644}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/10/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216280
La Bohème {678}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/14/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216360
Roméo et Juliette {214}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/22/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216440
Roméo et Juliette {215}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/30/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216580
Roméo et Juliette {216}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/13/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216620
La Bohème {679}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/16/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216690
La Bohème {680}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/23/1968
Debut: Luciano Pavarotti
Review
[Met Performance] CID:216760
Roméo et Juliette {218}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/30/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216850
Roméo et Juliette {219}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/7/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216900
Roméo et Juliette {220}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/13/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216930
Roméo et Juliette {221}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/16/1968
[Met Performance] CID:216960
Carmen {645}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/19/1968
[Met Performance] CID:271780
Don Carlo {123}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/28/1983
Review
[Met Performance] CID:271810
Don Carlo {124}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/3/1983
[Met Performance] CID:271880
Don Carlo {125}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/9/1983
[Met Performance] CID:271920
Don Carlo {126}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/12/1983
[Met Performance] CID:271950
Don Carlo {127}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/15/1983
[Met Performance] CID:271980
Don Carlo {128}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/18/1983
[Met Performance] CID:272020
Don Carlo {129}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/22/1983
[Met Performance] CID:272060
Don Carlo {130}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/26/1983
Broadcast / Telecast
Review
[Met Performance] CID:274190
La Bohème {873}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/15/1983
[Met Performance] CID:274250
La Bohème {874}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/21/1983
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:274260
Centennial Gala I
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/22/1983
100th Anniversary of the Metropolitan Opera
Broadcast / Telecast
[Met Performance] CID:278370
Manon Lescaut {172}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/29/1984
Review
[Met Performance] CID:278430
Manon Lescaut {173}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/3/1984
[Met Performance] CID:278460
Manon Lescaut {174}
Metropolitan Opera House; 11/6/1984
[Met Performance] CID:279510
Metropolitan Opera Premiere
Porgy and Bess {1}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/6/1985
Debuts: Charles Williams, Gregg Baker, Bruce Hubbard, Donald Osborne, Joseph Joubert, John Freeman-McDaniels, Michael Lofton, Mervin Wallace, Priscilla Baskerville, Milton B. Grayson, Jr., John D. Anthony, Clinton Chinyelu Ingram, Jay Aubrey Jones, Larry Storch, Hansford Rowe
Review
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:279850
Freni-Pavarotti-Levine Concert
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/10/1985
[Met Performance] CID:291250
La Bohème {928}
Metropolitan Opera House; 01/22/1988
Debuts: Jonathan Summers, Claudio Giombi, Carlos Kleiber
Review
[Met Performance] CID:291280
La Bohème {929}
Metropolitan Opera House; 01/25/1988
[Met Performance] CID:291310
La Bohème {930}
Metropolitan Opera House; 01/28/1988
[Met Performance] CID:291350
La Bohème {931}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/1/1988
[Met Performance] CID:291410
La Bohème {932}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/6/1988
[Met Performance] CID:294800
Carmen {825}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/14/1988
[Met Performance] CID:294830 Opera News
Carmen {826}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/17/1988
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:295760
Eugene Onegin {90}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/18/1989
[Met Performance] CID:295780
Eugene Onegin {91}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/21/1989
[Met Performance] CID:295820  Opera News
Eugene Onegin {92}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/25/1989
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:295860
Eugene Onegin {93}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/29/1989
Debut: Judith Christin
[Met Performance] CID:295900
Eugene Onegin {94}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/1/1989
[Met Performance] CID:295930
Eugene Onegin {95}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/5/1989
[Met Performance] CID:299460
Manon Lescaut {200}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/19/1990
Debuts: J. Patrick Raftery, Carolyn Sielski
[Met Performance] CID:299500
Manon Lescaut {201}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/23/1990
[Met Performance] CID:299560
Manon Lescaut {202}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/1/1990
[Met Performance] CID:299610
Manon Lescaut {203}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/6/1990
[Met Performance] CID:299660
Manon Lescaut {204}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/10/1990
[Met Performance] CID:299680
Manon Lescaut {205}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/13/1990
[Met Performance] CID:299720 Opera News
Manon Lescaut {206}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/17/1990
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:299780
Manon Lescaut {207}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/23/1990
[Met Performance] CID:302010
La Bohème {953}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/24/1990
Opening Night {106}
Joseph Volpe, General Manager
Debut: Richard Cowan
Review
[Met Performance] CID:302050
La Bohème {954}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/28/1990
[Met Performance] CID:302090
La Bohème {955}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/2/1990
[Met Performance] CID:302130
La Bohème {956}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/6/1990
[Met Performance] CID:302170
La Bohème {957}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/10/1990
[Met Performance] CID:302210
La Bohème {958}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/13/1990
Debut: Franco Farina
[Met Performance] CID:303500
Le Nozze di Figaro {318}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/22/1991
Review
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:303810
Gala Performance
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/24/1991
Mirella Freni, Alfredo Kraus and Nicolai Ghiaurov 25th Anniversary
Review
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:306000
Gala Performance
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/23/1991
Opening Night {107}
Joseph Volpe, General Manager
25th Anniversary of Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center
Broadcast / Telecast
[Met Performance] CID:307100
La Bohème {968}
Metropolitan Opera House; 01/12/1992
[Met Performance] CID:307460
Rigoletto {677}
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/17/1992
Charles Anthony honored for record number of Metropolitan Opera performances
Review
[Met Performance] CID:310040
Falstaff {144}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/25/1992
Debut: Piero De Palma
Review
[Met Performance] CID:310080
Falstaff {145}
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/29/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310130
Falstaff {146}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/3/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310150
Falstaff {147}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/6/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310190 
Falstaff {148}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/10/1992
Broadcast / Telecast
[Met Performance] CID:310230
Falstaff {149}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/14/1992
Paul Plishka’s 25th Anniversary
[Met Performance] CID:310270
Falstaff {150}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/17/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310290
Falstaff {151}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/20/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310740
Eugene Onegin {96}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/4/1992
Debut: Seiji Ozawa
[Met Performance] CID:310770
Eugene Onegin {97}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/7/1992
[Met Performance] CID:310860
Eugene Onegin {98}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/16/1992
Debut: Sergei Leiferkus
Review
[Met Performance] CID:310890 Opera News
Eugene Onegin {99}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/19/1992
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:310920
Eugene Onegin {100}
Metropolitan Opera House; 12/22/1992
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:315450
Luciano Pavarotti Recital
Metropolitan Opera House; 02/20/1994
[Met Performance] CID:315560
Adriana Lecouvreur {60}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/3/1994
Debuts: Annemarie Lucania, Roberto Abbado
Review
[Met Performance] CID:315610
Adriana Lecouvreur {61}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/7/1994
[Met Performance] CID:315650
Adriana Lecouvreur {62}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/11/1994
[Met Performance] CID:315680
Adriana Lecouvreur {63}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/14/1994
[Met Performance] CID:315730 Opera News
Adriana Lecouvreur {64}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/19/1994
Broadcast
[Met Performance] CID:315770
Adriana Lecouvreur {65}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/23/1994
[Met Performance] CID:315810
Adriana Lecouvreur {66}
Metropolitan Opera House; 03/26/1994
[Met Performance] CID:326050
New Production
Fedora {27}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/5/1996
Debuts: Denis Sedov, Jean-Yves Thibaudet, Benjamin Diskant, Beppe De Tomasi, Ferruccio Villagrossi, Pier Luciano Cavallotti
[Met Performance] CID:326080
Fedora {28}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/8/1996
[Met Performance] CID:326120
Fedora {29}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/12/1996
[Met Performance] CID:326170
Fedora {30}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/17/1996
[Met Performance] CID:326220
Fedora {31}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/21/1996
[Met Performance] CID:326260
Fedora {32}
Metropolitan Opera House; 10/25/1996
[Met Performance] CID:328050
Fedora {33}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/22/1997
[Met Performance] CID:328090 
Fedora {34}
Metropolitan Opera House; 04/26/1997
Broadcast / Telecast
[Met Performance] CID:328140
Fedora {35}
Metropolitan Opera House; 05/1/1997
[Met Concert/Gala] CID:350336
Opening Night Gala Performance
Metropolitan Opera House; 09/23/2002
Opening Night {118}
Joseph Volpe, General Manager

Läs mer