Philip Morris Glass (born January 31, 1937 is an American composer. He is considered one of the most influential music makers of the late 20th century. His music is also often controversially described as minimal music, along with the work of the other “major minimalists” La Monte Young, Terry Riley and Steve Reich.
Philip Glass American composer
Glass has distanced himself from the “minimalist” label, describing himself instead as a composer of “music with repetitive structures”. Though his early mature music shares much with what is normally called “minimalist”, he has since evolved stylistically. Currently, he describes himself as a “classicist”, pointing out that he is trained in harmony and counterpoint and studied such composers as Franz Schubert, Johann Sebastian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with Nadia Boulanger.
Glass has founded his namesake musical group, Philip Glass Ensemble, with which he still performs on keyboards, and has written operas, musical theatre works, ten symphonies, eleven concertos, solo works, chamber music including string quartets and instrumental sonatas, and film scores. Three of his film scores have been nominated for Academy Awards.
Through his operas, his symphonies, his compositions for his own ensemble, and his wide-ranging collaborations with artists ranging from Twyla Tharp to Allen Ginsberg, Woody Allen to David Bowie, Philip Glass has had an extraordinary and unprecedented impact upon the musical and intellectual life of his times.
The operas – “Einstein on the Beach,” “Satyagraha,” “Akhnaten,” and “The Voyage,” among many others – play throughout the world’s leading houses, and rarely to an empty seat. Glass has written music for experimental theater and for Academy Award-winning motion pictures such as “The Hours” and Martin Scorsese’s “Kundun,” while “Koyaanisqatsi,” his initial filmic landscape with Godfrey Reggio and the Philip Glass Ensemble, may be the most radical and influential mating of sound and vision since “Fantasia.” His associations, personal and professional, with leading rock, pop and world music artists date back to the 1960s, including the beginning of his collaborative relationship with artist Robert Wilson. Indeed, Glass is the first composer to win a wide, multi-generational audience in the opera house, the concert hall, the dance world, in film and in popular music — simultaneously.
He was born in 1937 and grew up in Baltimore. He studied at the University of Chicago, the Juilliard School and in Aspen with Darius Milhaud. Finding himself dissatisfied with much of what then passed for modern music, he moved to Europe, where he studied with the legendary pedagogue Nadia Boulanger (who also taught Aaron Copland , Virgil Thomson and Quincy Jones) and worked closely with the sitar virtuoso and composer Ravi Shankar. He returned to New York in 1967 and formed the Philip Glass Ensemble – seven musicians playing keyboards and a variety of woodwinds, amplified and fed through a mixer.
The new musical style that Glass was evolving was eventually dubbed “minimalism.” Glass himself never liked the term and preferred to speak of himself as a composer of “music with repetitive structures.” Much of his early work was based on the extended reiteration of brief, elegant melodic fragments that wove in and out of an aural tapestry. Or, to put it another way, it immersed a listener in a sort of sonic weather that twists, turns, surrounds, develops.
There has been nothing “minimalist” about his output. In the past 25 years, Glass has composed more than twenty operas, large and small; eight symphonies (with others already on the way); two piano concertos and concertos for violin, piano, timpani, and saxophone quartet and orchestra; soundtracks to films ranging from new scores for the stylized classics of Jean Cocteau to Errol Morris’s documentary about former defense secretary Robert McNamara; string quartets; a growing body of work for solo piano and organ. He has collaborated with Paul Simon, Linda Ronstadt, Yo-Yo Ma, and Doris Lessing, among many others. He presents lectures, workshops, and solo keyboard performances around the world, and continues to appear regularly with the Philip Glass Ensemble.
- Einstein on the Beach (1976)
- Satyagraha (1980)
- Akhnaten (1983)
- Orphée (1993)
- La Belle et la Bête (1994)
- Les Enfants Terribles, (1996)
- A Madrigal Opera (1980)
- the CIVIL warS (1984)
- The Fall of the House of Usher (libretto efter en novell av Edgar Allan Poe, 1987)
- The making of the representative for Planet 8, (libretto av Doris Lessing, 1985–88)
- 1000 Airplanes on the Roof (1988)
- Hydrogen Jukebox (libretto av Allen Ginsberg, 1990)
- White Raven (1991)
- The Voyage (1992)
- The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four, and Five (libretto av Doris Lessing, 1997)
- Monsters of Grace (1998)
- In the Penal Colony (libretto efter en novell av Franz Kafka, 2000)
- The Sound of a Voice (2003)
- Waiting for the Barbarians (efter en roman av J.M. Coetzee, 2005)
- Appomattox (2007, libretto av Christopher Hampton)
- Kepler (libretto av Martina Winkel, innehåller texter av Johannes Kepler och Andreas Gryphius, 2009)
- The Perfect American (bygger på boken om Walt Disney av Peter Stephan Jungk, 2011)
- The Lost (efter en pjäs av Peter Handke, 2011–12)