Samsun stad i Turkiet med operahus
Samsun är en hamnstad i provinsen S vid svartahavskusten i norra Turkiet. Storstadskommunen S består av de fyra distrikten İlkadım, Atakum, Canik och Tekkeköy, vilka tillsammans har 584 646 invånare. S har en god, modern hamn, och är Turkiets största hamnstad vid svartahavskusten. Härifrån utskeppas tobak, spannmål och ull. Industrier i staden är textil- och konstgödselindustri. Staden har ett universitet, grundat 1975.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk began the Turkish War of Independence here in 1919.
Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can be seen in Samsun Archaeology Museum.The earliest layer excavated of the höyük of Dündartepe revealed a Chalcolithic settlement. Early Bronze Age and Hittite settlements were also found there and at Tekkeköy.Samsun (then known as Amisos, alternative spelling Amisus) was settled between the years of 760–750 BC by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. The city’s ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders.
The city was captured by the Persians in 550BC and became part of Cappadocia (satrapy). In the 4th century BC the city came under the expanded rule of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Amisos treasure may have belonged to one of the kings.The Romans took over in 71 BC and Amisos became part of Bithynia et Pontus province (and later Dioecesis Pontica) of the eastern Roman Empire.
Tumuli, containing tombs dated between 300BC and 30BC, can be seen at Amisos Hill but unfortunately Toraman Tepe was mostly flattened during construction of the 20th century radar base. For the period after the fall of Rome the Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire. The city was part of the Armeniac Theme. Samsun Castle was built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1909 and 1918. Samsun was part of the Seljuk Empire and Sultanate of Rum and the Empire of Trebizond and was one of the Genoese colonies. After the breakup of the Seljuk Empire into small principalities (beyliks) in the late 13th century, the city was ruled by one of them, the Isfendiyarids. It was captured from the Isfendiyarids at the end of the 14th century by the rival Ottoman beylik (later the Ottoman Empire) under sultan Bayezid I, but was lost again shortly afterwards. The Ottomans permanently conquered the town in 1420, and it became part of the Sanjak of Canik (Turkish: Canik Sancağı), which was at first part of the Rûm Eyalet.
In the later Ottoman period, the land around the town mainly produced tobacco, with its own type being grown in Samsun, the Samsun-Bafra, which the British described as having “small but very aromatic leaves”, and commanding a “high price.” The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed. There was a British consulate in the town from 1837 to 1863. Samsun, then home to an Armenian community numbering over 5,000, was heavily affected during the Armenian Genocide of 1915. According to local eyewitnesses, such as Hafiz Mehmet, many of the Samsun Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. Others were deported from Samsun and ultimately massacred in provinces further south. After the Armenian Genocide, there remained eleven islamicized Armenians and two Armenian physicians. Armenian orphans who had survived were given to Turkish families. Replica of the cargo ship SS Bandırma, which carried Atatürk from Istanbul and arrived in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established the Turkish liberation movement against the Allies in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk, appointed by the Ottoman government as Inspector of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate of the Empire in eastern Anatolia, left Constantinople aboard the now-famous SS Bandırma May 16 for Samsun. Instead of obeying the orders of the Ottoman government, then under the control of the occupying Allies, he and a number of colleagues declared the beginning of the liberation movement. Later in the War of Independence, the city was bombarded by the Greek Navy and the United States Navy.
By 1920, Samsun’s population totaled about 36,000.
A US Airforce listening post (USAFSS) TUSLOG DET 3-2 was based in Samsun from 1956 until closure in the early 70s.