Ufa (basjkiriska: Өфө, Öfö; ryska: Уфа; tatariska: Ufa eller Öfä; tjuvasjiska: Ěпхӳ) är huvudstaden i republiken Basjkirien, belägen längst österut i den europeiska delen av Ryssland, invid Uralbergens västra sluttningar, där floderna Belaja och Ufa möts. Staden har lite mer än 1 miljon invånare.
Presumably in the 5th to the 16th centuries on the site of Ufa there was a medieval city. On the map of Pizzigano brothers (1367) and on the Catalan Atlas (1375) approximately on the Belaya River was designated a town Pascherti (Bashkort), On the Gerardus Mercator’s map (1554) also marked the settlement with the Pascherti name. French orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa.
Ibn Khaldun among the largest cities of the Golden Horde called the town Bashkort.
Russian historian of the XVIII century Peter Rychkov wrote that on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians there was a great city.
The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs.
16th — 18th centuries
By order of Ivan the Terrible on the site of modern Ufa was built fortress in 1574, and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau. After the outbreak of the Pugachev’s Rebellion, it went through the most brutal events in its early history, as the fortress and the city were in the middle of the military actions. For several months during the winter of 1773–1774, Ufa was under siege by Cossack and Bashkir insurgents until they were fought off by the arrived government forces.
Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802 the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast. During the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center.
19th century — modern days
During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, a number of industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa. The city also became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government.
During 9—10 July 2015 Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
Administrative and municipal status
Ufa is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa, an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug.